Compare and contrast reliability and validity explaining what these terms mean in quantitative research and how they are different from one another.

Here is a brief summary of a fictitious study. Read the summary and then respond to the questions that follow. MAKE NOTE THAT YOU MUST SUPPORT YOUR RESPONSES BELOW USING THE TEXTBOOK AND OTHER SOURCES SO IT IS NOT SIMPLY ANSWERING THE QUESTIONS BUT SUPPORTING YOUR RESPONSES.
STEP
1: Answer the questions below providing support for answers.

O’Connor studied factors affecting cardiovascular reactivity to
a postural change in a sample of healthy men and women. Change in systolic
blood pressure (SBP) from supine to standing position was used as the measure
of cardiac reactivity in a sample of 842 adults. Supine measurement of blood
pressure was taken after participants had lain on an examination table for 15
minutes. Blood pressure was determined every 30 seconds for 2 minutes, and the
four measurements were averaged. Participants then stood up immediately, and
four additional measurements were made for another 2 minutes. Below is a table
describing the characteristics of O’Connor’s sample.

Short Answer Questions: WHICH NEED TO BE SUPPORTED!!! Hint that 3 of the 4 scales is used in the example provided.
a. Which
variables in the table, if any, were measured on a nominal scale?
b. Which
variables in the table, if any, were measured on an ordinal scale?
c. Which
variables in the table, if any, were measured on an interval scale?
d. Which
variables in the table, if any, were measured on a ratio scale?
e. Which
measure(s) of central tendency, if any, are presented in this table
f. Which
measure(s) of variability, if any, are presented in this table
g. If
age is normally distributed, approximately what percent of the sample would be
younger than 50?
h. If
BMI is normally distributed, approximately what percent of the sample would
have a BMI higher than 33.1?
STEP
2: Compare and contrast reliability and validity explaining what
these terms mean in quantitative research and how they are different from one
another.
STEP
3: Describe 2 different approaches to reliability assessment with
specific examples of how these two approaches are measured. Describe two major
domains in validity domain providing specific examples of how the 2 you have
chosen are measured in quantitative research.
Discussion Protocol. Please observe the following
3 x 3 rule: when writing your weekly discussions (applies to the original
discussion posting): – A minimum of three paragraphs per DQ. Each paragraph
should have a minimum of three sentences. All sections of the question need to
be addressed. Remember that peer responses need to be substantive and extend
the original discussion posting by making connections, relating to others’
ideas and adding supporting detail. Refer to
grading rubric, to receive full credit each portion of the
discussion posting must be addressed along with the 2 peer responses. The 2
peer responses must be substantive and add something to the original posts and
should be a minimum of 4-5 sentences but can certainly be longer.
All answers or discussions comments submitted must be in APA
format according to Publication Manual American Psychological Association (APA)
(7th ed.) 2019.
Discussions must have a minimum of two references, not older
than 2015. First post by Thursday 11:59 PM weekly and respond to two peers by
Sunday 11:59 weekly.

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